Author’s Instruction

The Applied Research Conference in Africa publishes empirical and conceptual papers.
We welcome the following varieties of paper:
• Empirical research papers, containing new quantitative or qualitative data which address significant theoretical and/or practical concerns;
• Papers which offer new theory and conceptualisation, perhaps accompanied by a critique of existing approaches;
• Narrative and/or quantitative reviews of existing research which lead to new conclusions or insights into a field of research and/or practice;
• Prescriptive articles advocating changes in research paradigms, methods, or data analytic techniques;

Style of Manuscripts:
Manuscripts should be written in clear, concise and grammatically correct English (with 12 font size and Times New Roman font style) so that they are intelligible to the professional reader who is not a specialist in any particular field. Manuscripts that do not conform to these requirements and the following manuscript format may be returned to the author prior to review for correction. The entire manuscript, including references, should be typed single spaced on one side of the paper, with margins of 1 inch each side. All pages should be numbered consecutively in the bottom centre. Indent new paragraphs. Turn the hyphenation option off, including only those hyphens that are essential to the meaning. The manuscript should be presented in the following order.

All manuscripts must include a brief but informative Abstract intelligible without reference to the main text. It should be between 200- 250 words and should describe the scope, hypothesis or rationale for the work and the main findings. Both common and scientific names should be included; the authorities are not given if they appear in the title. References to the literature and mathematical symbols / equations should not be included. Abstract must include following sections:
Problem Statement: This section should include answers of the questions:
• Why was research needed?.
• What was the context of the work?.
• Introduce the problem or provide background for what you will address.

• What did you do and how did you go about solving or making progress on the problem.
• Describe the method of research, study, or analysis applied to the problem.

• What results did you get?
• State what you found and relate it to the problem.
• Summarize the major results in numbers, avoid vague, hand waving results such as “very small” or “significant”.

• What are the implications of your answer?
• State the relevance, implications, or significance of the results or conclusions, to the business.
• Significance of work is often implied by the recommendations or implications for future work.

Key words (5) should be provided below the Abstract to assist with indexing of the article. These should not duplicate key words from the title.

This section should include sufficient background information to set the work in context. The aims of the manuscript should be clearly stated. The introduction should not contain either findings or conclusions.

Research Methods:
This should be concise but provide sufficient detail to allow the work to be repeated by others.

Results should be presented in a logical sequence in the text, tables and figures; repetitive presentation of the same data in different forms should be avoided. The results should not contain material appropriate to the Discussion.

This should consider the results in relation to any hypotheses advanced in the Introduction and place the study in the context of other work. Only in exceptional cases should the Results and Discussion sections be combined.

For reference citations, please use Harvard style. Particular care should be taken to ensure that references are accurate and complete. Give all journal titles in full.

Book (1 author) FAMILY/SURNAME, Initials.(Publication year in brackets) Book title – italicised or underlined. Series title and volume if applicable. Edition – if not the first. Place of publication: publisher.


Book (2 authors) FAMILY/SURNAME, Initials., FAMILY/SURNAME, Initials. and FAMILY/SURNAME, Initials. (Publication year in brackets) Book title – italicised or underlined. Series title and volume if applicable. Edition – if not the first. Place of publication: Publisher



Book (4 or more authors)

It is discretionary as to whether you list all authors and also whether you use ‘et al.’ or ‘and others’ as below:

FAMILY/SURNAME, Initials. et al. or and others. (Publication year in brackets) Book title – italicised or underlined. Series title and volume if applicable. Edition – if not the first. Place of publication: Publisher.


Abbreviation and Units:
SI units (metre, kilogram etc.), as outlined in the latest edition of Units, Symbols and Abbreviations: A Guide for Medical and Scientific Editors and Authors (Royal Society of Medicine Press, London), should be used wherever possible. Statistics and measurements should always be given in figures; that is, 10 mm, except where the number begins the sentence. When the number does not refer to a unit measurement, it is spelt out, except where the number is greater than nine. Use only standard abbreviations. The word ‘Figure’ should be shortened to Fig. unless starting a sentence.

Check List:
We recommend that you ask a colleague to read over your paper prior to submission to ensure it is of a high standard and conforms to a high level of scientific writing.
Before submission of your manuscript, please check that:
• All references cited in the text are included in the reference section.
• All figures and tables are cited in the text.
• The pages are numbered.